Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a breathing problem. It is lung disorder that commonly affects premature infants. Sometimes affects babies born about 6 weeks or more before their due dates. RDS affected an mostly infants born alive in the United States. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the rapid onset of respiratory failure (ability to adequately oxygenate the blood) that can occur in critically ill persons of any age over 1 year. This is the most important disorder resulting in increased permeability pulmonary edema. It is characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma leading to impaired gas exchange with concomitant systemic release of inflammatory mediators causing inflammation, hypoxemia and frequently resulting in multiple organ failure.
ARDS has a death rate of approximately 30 to 40 percent. The estimated annual frequency of ARDS is reported as 75 cases per 100,000 population. ARDS Symptoms include severe difficulty in breathing , anxiety, agitation and fever. ARDS infants may develop several complications such as sepsis, an infection of the bloodstream, as well as other problems related to prematurity, such as bleeding into the brain. These and other complications can cause convulsions, shock-like states, and in some cases, death. ARDS patients are usually treated in the intensive. Treatment is primarily supportive using a mechanical respirator and supplemental oxygen. A supportive breathing technique called positive end expiratory pressure. These are combined with continuing treatment of the precipitating illness.
Corticosteroids may sometimes be administered in late phases of ARDS or if the patient is in shock. Intravenous fluids are given to provide nutrition and prevent dehydration. Antianxiety drugs to relieve anxiety. Drugs to counteract low blood pressure that may be caused by shock Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) potentially acts as selective pulmonary vasodilator. Rapid binding to hemoglobin prevents systemic effects. It should increase perfusion of better ventilated areas. A risk factor for ARDS, taking appropriate measures to prevent aspiration, such as elevation of the head of the bed, may prevent some cases of ARDS. There are many therapies such as, replacement surfactant (a natural soapy substance that keeps the lung air sacs open) may be beneficial.
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treatment and Prevention Tips
1. Intravenous fluids are given to provide nutrition.
2. Use of a surfactant preparation can be lifesaving and reduces complications.
3. Corticosteroids have been used empirically and in numerous clinical trials.
4. Replacement surfactant therapy may be beneficial.
5. Rapid binding to hemoglobin prevents systemic effects.
6. Antianxiety drugs to relieve anxiety.