Coshh And Respiratory Sensitisers

Breathing in substances called respiratory sensitisers at work can cause occupational asthma.

A respiratory sensitiser is a substance which when inhaled can bring on an irreversible allergic reaction in the respiratory system. Once a sensitisation reaction occurs, continued exposure to the substance will produce symptoms.

Sensitisation does not usually take place right away but can happen after several months or even years of breathing in the sensitiser.

Substances responsible for most cases of occupational asthma include the following:-

Substance Groups & their Common Activities

Isocyanates:Vehicle spray painting;foam manufacturing

Flour/grain/hay:Handling grain at docks;milling, malting, baking

Glutaraldehyde:Disinfecting instruments

Wood dusts:Sawmilling, woodworking

Electronic Soldering Flux:soldering

Latex:Laboratory animal work

Some glues/resins:Curing of epoxy resins

The symptoms of respiratory sensitisation are:

– asthma – attacks of coughing, breathlessness and tightness of the chest

– rhinitis and conjunctivitis – runny or stuffy nose and watery or prickly eyes

Once a person is sensitised, symptoms can occur either immediately they are exposed to the sensitiser or several hours later. If the symptoms are delayed, they are often most severe in the evenings or during the night, so workers may not realise it is work that is causing the problem.

– If exposure to the substance continues, this can result in permanent damage to the lungs. People with rhinitis may go on to develop asthma.

– Respiratory sensitisers are regulated by the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health(CoSHH).

CoSHH guidelines recommend an assessment of the risks created by work which are liable to expose employees to respiratory sensitisers.

First, find out whether there is an activity or process in your workplace which uses or creates respiratory sensitisers.

If this is the case, then ask the following:

– Is the sensitiser likely to become airborne in use?

– Are there safer alternatives?

– Who is likely to be exposed, to what concentrations, for how long and how often?

According to CoSHH regulations, exposure must be prevented or controlled. To do this you will need to think about how you can:

– Stop using the sensitiser altogether perhaps by replacing it with a less harmful substance;

or if this is not reasonably practicable;

– Segregate work that may pose a risk; or totally end the process;

or if this is not reasonably practicable;

– Partially enclose the process and provide local exhaust ventilation.

If after carrying out the above you still have not achieved adequate control you will also need to use respiratory protective equipment (RPE).

Unless you are confident that your CoSHH assessment shows that there is an unlikely risk to your health, then a system of health surveillance will need to be set up if employees are exposed to respiratory sensitisers.

If health surveillance makes you suspect an employee has become sensitised you should:

– Remove the individual from working with the sensitiser and advise them to consult a doctor giving information on the work they do and the substances they may have been breathing in;

– Review your CoSHH assessment and existing control measures and make any necessary changes.

If employees are exposed to respiratory sensitisers then employers have a legal duty to inform, instruct and train them so that they know and understand:

– The risks to health;

– The symptoms of sensitisation

– The significance of reporting even possibly minor symptoms at an early stage;

– The proper use of control measures;

– The need to report promptly any failures in control measures

Clinical Trials of Buteyko Respiration Technique for Asthma

Breathing techniques and respiration devices become more and more popular among asthmatics and people with other respiratory problems. Among the known breathing techniques is the Buteyko breathing method, which had six randomised controlled trials in western countries.

The results were remarkable: twice less steroids, 3-10 times less reliever medication, better quality of life and less asthma symptoms, but unchanged bronchial responsiveness or lung function results after several months of breathing exercises. Meanwhile, all these studies had a major methodological flaw, which I am going to consider here.

Dr. K. Buteyko made the following clinical statements:
– Sick people, asthmatics including, breathe more air at rest than the minuscule medical norm (chronic hyperventilation). Overbreathing reduces tissue oxygenation and strengthens the desire to breathe even more.
– If they normalize their breathing pattern, then they will not require medication and will not experience their symptoms.
– The Buteyko Table of Health Zones relates breathing parameters of sick people, regardless of the name of the disease, with their current health state. This table describes parameters that reflect normal breathing (8 breaths/min for breathing frequency at rest, 6.5 percent for alveolar CO2 content, 60 seconds for stress-free breath holding time after usual exhalation, etc.). These parameters correspond to normal health and absence of asthma and many other chronic diseases since normal breathing improves body oxygenation.
– Someone has mastered the Buteyko breathing method, if his breathing parameters are normal.

Dr KP Buteyko never made claims that a particular Buteyko practitioner could achieve a particular result in relation to some group of asthmatics. Let us apply these Buteykos claims to available scientific data and the results of these randomised controlled trials.

First of all, hundreds of scientific research publications have shown that hyperventilation DIMINISHES oxygen content in body tissues.

Do asthmatics breathe much more air than the medical norm? A typical respiratory minute ventilation for an average asthmatic is about 12-15 L of air in one minute at rest (5 publications are available on my website), while the medical norm is only 6 L/min. Therefore, asthmatics breathe at rest about 2-2.5 times more air than the physiological standard.

Did asthmatics improve their breath parameters during these randomised controlled trials of the Buteyko breathing method? During the most impressive study (Bowler et al, 1998), in 3 months, use of relievers was reduced by 96 percent (25 times less ventolin) and preventers or inhaled steroids by 50%. Respiratory minute volume decreased from their initial 14 L/min to 9.6 L/min, but the physiological norm is only 6 L/min, while Dr. Buteykos hard standard is 4 L/min at rest for a 70-kg man. Hence, during their best shot, the participated asthmatics got only about a half way towards the standard. Consequently, there were a very few asthmatics, if any, who normalized their breath during these trials. They continued to hyperventilate.

The assumption of the medical doctors, who conducted these randomised controlled trials, was that a Buteyko teacher taught the Buteyko breathing method and a controlled group “learned” the method. This is easy to see from the titles, which usually say about a “trial of the Buteyko method”. How could they study the method, if no one learned it?

From a practical view, since I taught the Buteyko method to hundreds of people, the key difficulty during these randomised controlled trials were the following. The participants were mainly limited to practicing breathing exercises (e.g., 40-70 min per day). They could not use the versatile arsenal of life-style addressing tools of the Buteyko method. Breathing normalization process requires 24/7 control of breathing including:
– nasal breathing all the time (hence, it is necessary then to seal ones mouth with a surgical tape, if the mouth is usually dry in the morning; and someone will never solve their problems with asthma, if mouth breathing occurs during each night
– physical exercise (no less than 2 hours daily with only nasal breathing, in and out, otherwise exercise is more or less ineffective for most, especially sick people)
– prevention of sleeping on ones back (we breathe about two times more air, when we sleep on our backs at night)
– and various other lifestyle-related factors so that ones basal breathing pattern is restored back to our physiological standard.

Even more successful results have been discovered after application of the Frolov Breathing Device during recent clinical trails in Russia (under review and to be published in 2011).

Frequent Bronchial Asthma Activates And Scenarios Impacting On Bronchial Asthma

Possible bronchial asthma triggers include:

Pollen, dirt, smoke cigarettes, as well as other contaminants in the air
* Strenuous physical exercise or other physical activity.
* Smoking from burning timber as well as cigarette smoking
* Viral infections, chilly, flu, respiratory disease, pneumonia
* Strong odors, perfume, deodorants, cleaning sprays, along with chemical substance smells
* If you suffer coming from sinus problems, existen a fever
* Having a laugh or sobbing loudly creating tension
* Abrupt modifications in weather, particularly cold air flow, wetness and also rainwater
* Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications
* Foods additives containing sulphur, for example people utilized in canned food, dried fruit, draught beer, as well as wine beverages.

Bronchial asthma isn’t a new curable condition, but tend to always be stopped through curbing triggers. A little bit of overall health on area of the affected individual can decrease his odds of owning an asthma attack.

In order to avoid asthma signs and symptoms:

* Find out about your sort of symptoms of asthma and ways to regulate it – specifically just what invokes this. Prevent them.
* Utilize drugs while directed with the physician to stop or perhaps control problems.
* Stay away from just about all foods/things that will make your current asthma worse.
* Find regular examinations from the doctor.

It is difficult to summarize as to what affects symptoms of asthma. We are able to normally state that this following circumstances help to make symptoms of asthma signs and symptoms worse —

* Whatsoever age range, asthma attack can be greatly affected through health-related behavior. By way of example, using tobacco may bring about and complicate asthma attack, and in addition raises the risk that a person will have co-morbid conditions.
* Exercise- This is induced when the first is performing exercises along with breathing air that is chilly as well as more dry compared to the oxygen in the voice
* Vaccination towards influenza, pneumococcal disease or hyposensitization is yet another influencing factor involving symptoms of asthma.
* Climate -Certain forms of temperature cause problems in specific individuals with symptoms of asthma
* Hormonal changes- A few women have increased signs and symptoms of bronchial asthma at a certain period throughout their period, for instance pre-menstruation, as well as during pregnancy
* Gastroesophageal reflux-Symptoms of heartburn symptoms and also breathing in trouble in the evening show gastroesophageal regurgitate
* Diet plan : Symptoms of asthma symptoms might be decreased through eliminating upon damp-forming meals especially dairy products which develop a lot of mucous.
* Feelings as well as stress-Emotions don’t cause asthma attack, but could create asthma attack even worse.
* Position : Bronchial asthma may also be brought on as well as worsened through poor good posture, particularly through childhood. Kids can be stooping more than books or viewing television with regard to long stretches. In such scenarios they could not inhale effectively because they are adding undue pressure on their own boxes
* Pollutants- via a flight aggravate a good asthma invasion. Household offers, smoking, dust and other solutions that have robust chemical compounds will give away from poisonous gases which could trigger episodes
* Things that trigger allergies -Common contaminants in the air contain dog pet pollen, saliva as well as urine via feathered or perhaps furred wildlife, dustmites, fungus, plant pollen.
* Hereditary- Genes really are a causative realtor associated with asthma.
* Solid odours and sprays- make an effort to avoid robust odors as well as aerosols for example scents, talcum powdered, shows, oil, hair spray.
* Too much intake of sodium

Benefits And Dangers Of Deep Breathing

Optimal deep breathing increases our vitality and promotes relaxation. Unfortunately, when we try to take a so-called deep breath, most of us do the exact opposite: we “take a breath” suck in our bellies and raise our shoulders. This is shallow breathing as measured by volume as it tries to access air from the high chest where there is to little to no lung volume

When our breathing is full and deep, and mostly in the lower thorax, the belly, lower ribcage and lower back where most of the lung volume resides, should all expand in a full circle on inhalation, thus allowing the diaphragm to drop down deeper into the abdomen, front, side and back. Then it retracts on exhalation, allowing the massaging action of the diaphragm to move fully upward toward the heart. This is healthy deep breathing.

Most so called deep abdominal breathing results in deep effortful breathing and is not always really breathing deeply. It can actually be harmful or exacerbate existing, undetected, unbalanced, dysfunctional breathing. Deep breathing when done incorrectly will cause accessory breathing muscles to engage. These muscles should not be anything but supportive. Like the shaft of an elevator should guide the elevator but not cause it to go up and down.

The key to deep breathing is to begin to learn to sense unnecessary tension in our bodies and to learn how to release this tension. Work with deep breathing begins with and requires internal awareness. Without sufficient awareness and heightened sensitivity to what is happening inside our bodies, efforts to change breathing will have little to no effect, often creates more tension and stress and undermine our health and well-being.

The way we use “breathing exercises” has reference to breathing patterns (holding, gasping, sighing), breathing rate, breathing depth (volume), locus of breathing (chest and diaphragm), breathing coordination, sequencing and balance (relationship of upper and lower aspects of the breathing wave), breathing resistance (nose and mouth), and collateral muscle activity for breathing regulation (muscles other than the diaphragm such as those in the rib cage as well as supporting posture).

The downward and upward movements of the diaphragm, combined with the outward and inward movements of the belly, ribcage, and release of lower back musculature, allow for movement, “massage” , detoxifying nearby organs, and helps stimulate blood flow and peristalsis as well as pump the lymph more efficiently our lymphatic system. The lymphatic system has no pump other than muscular movements of human activity including the movements of the rib cage and diaphragm.

Deep Breathing for Relaxation
Many of us do not take enough time to breathe. This is very stressful to the nervous system. This shallow breathing causes an under-energized state and for muscles to shorten and invite unbalanced breathing.

When our breathing is deep and easy involving the respiratory muscles of the chest and belly, lower ribcage, and lower back–our breathing naturally slows down but due to no vasoconstriction stays deeper where it needs to be even during severe challenges including survival. This slower, deeper lower breathing, combined with the rhythmical pumping of our diaphragm, abdomen, and belly, helps modulate our parasympathetic nervous system–our “relaxation response”. Such breathing helps to harmonize our nervous system and reduce the amount of stress in our lives. It also supports states of what might be called “courage under fire”.

Breathing mechanics for relaxation, though a major marker for therapeutic process, is too often the exclusive focus of breathing training and learning. Ease is more important than relaxation as ease and flow facilitate relaxation but relaxation does not necessarily foster ease and flow.

Though slower breathing is most often better than faster breathing many therapists and trainers who teach breathing can deregulate respiratory chemistry by inducing over breathing/unbalanced breathing with their “relaxation” instructions to trainees i.e. slowing down the breathing without balancing it and not ensuring it has become parasympathetically dominant.

This often results in worsening respiratory faults (rib cage distortions), or hindering optimal breathing balance and coordination as well as confusing the client/ patient by inducing system-wide psycho-spiritual and psycho-physiological stresses.

Overbreathing
To think of breathing more than usual as being all bad is to suppress elements of passion and purpose inherent in the way we breathe. Overbreathing may be too broad a term and not allow for what I call healthy hyper-inhalation (breathing more than usual but staying parasympathetically based).

This way of breathing more but staying parasympathetically based may account for phenomena called the Law of Mass Action whereby the extra oxygen can be “packed” into the body tissues for later recovery and usage. This is not taken into account with most definitions of overbreathing. Overbreathing to me is more about chest breathing that causes or worsens vasoconstriction including excessive nerve enervation and muscle tensions.

That said, Optimal Breathing School faculty member Dr. Peter Litchfield helps clarify facts to remember that may well apply to the correct applications of what is called overbreathing:
The wrong combination of breathing rate, depth and balance can lead to “over breathing.” Over breathing means losing too much carbon dioxide, CO2 deficit means blood alkalosis, and alkalosis means smooth muscle constriction. Smooth muscle constriction means blood vessel, bronchiole, coronary and gut constriction. Over breathing can reduce mental and physical performance and trigger emotional and physical symptoms.

* Myth: Good breathing means relaxation.
* Fact: No. Good breathing is important in all ircumstances, whether relaxed or not.

* Myth: Learning good breathing requires relaxation.
* Fact: No. This would mean that during most life circumstances, breathing is maladaptive. There still must often be a window of balanced breathing within the ranges of life’s circumstances and that often has the look and feel of being “centered” or “grounded” or both.

* Myth: Diaphragmatic breathing is synonymous with good breathing.
* Fact: No. In many instances one may begin to over-breathe as a result of switching from chest to diaphragm.

* Myth: Good respiration is all about the mechanics of breathing.
* Fact: No. Good breathing means ventilating in accordance with metabolic requirements.

* Myth: Diaphragmatic, deep, slow breathing means better distribution of oxygen.
* Fact: No. Mechanics may look letter perfect, but oxygen distribution may be poor.

* Myth: Under breathing/shallow breathing, with the result of oxygen deficit or loss of personal power is common.
* Fact: Yes but also to the contrary, over breathing is common.

Good breathing translates into optimizing respiratory psychophysiology, and contrary to popular thinking, learning to breathe well does not simply mean deep, slow, diaphragmatic breathing in the context of learning how to relax.

Adaptive breathing mostly means regulating blood chemistry, through proper ventilation of carbon dioxide, in accordance with metabolic and other physiologic requirements associated with all life activities and circumstances. Deregulated, unbalanced breathing chemistry, i.e., hypoScapnia (CO2 deficiency) as a result of over breathing means serious physiological crisis involving system-wide compromises that involve physical and mental consequences of all kinds.

Evaluating, establishing, maintaining, and promoting good respiratory chemistry is extremely important in any professional practice involving breathing training.

Monitoring good breathing chemistry establishes a system-wide context conducive to help optimize health and maximize performance.

Breathing training is invariably included as an important component of relaxation training, but does not in of itself constitute optimal relaxation or optimal respiration. Optimal breathing implies ALL factors are in place in any moment in time.
At least 9 factors must be addressed to ensure optimal deep breathing. Priority is dependant upon the condition and situation.

1. Breathing chemistry including exchange from lungs to blood, blood to lungs and oxygen transport to all other cells of body.
2. Diaphragm excursion.
3. Rib expansion.
4. Ease of the natural breathing reflexive action including breathing coordination.
5. Nutrition.
6. Posture.
7. Attitude & Emotions.
8. Tasks at hand such as resting, walking, talking, running, feeling or expressing joy and fear.
9. Dominant parasympathetic balance

Each one influences the others.

One may be more necessary at any given moment depending upon several circumstances such as stress and or the task at hand. Optimal breathing can present itself during times of stress and challenge even where relaxation is neither possible nor adaptive. Training for various tasks alters the ratios and needs for each of the 9 basic influences as it inputs a conditioning factor that changes mechanical and cellular needs in the moment.

Cold Occurs At Upper Respiratory Infection

Sinus cold is very serious problem which people now a days are suffering from. Sinus cold can be irritating and are highly contagious. If you are suffering from sinus cold you need to cut down your interaction with the outside world and also need to spent plenty of your time in bed. If this problem left untreated it can further develop into other health problem like sinus infection or sinusitis. So, before these problem arises you need to consult your doctor as soon as possible.

Cold is a very serious problem and occurs at upper respiratory infection. It is usually caused by a virus that infects the nose and throat directly. In some cases cold may cause swelling in the sinuses. The main symptoms od cold are nasal congestion, run down feeling, runny nose with discharge, sneezing, sore throat, post nasal drip, headache, fatigue and fever. In adults fever is uncommon with cold but it can be seen in children. Cold normally last for week.

A sinus infection can be caused by any condition that blocks off the sinus drainage channels. These conditions include nasal polyps, cold, hay fever, allergies and non allergic rhinitis. A sinus problem may occur from anatomic problem nasal cavity and may occur after a cold. Sinus infection may last for many weeks if it is not treated on time.

For the treatment of sinus and cold there are various medicines available in the market for the treatment. Among all the medicines available in the market Drixoral medicine is considered to be the best, most trusted and recommended by the doctors and health care professionals. Drixoral is a over the counter medicine it means that one can get it without showing prescription given by the doctor. The main ingredient of drixoral medicine are Antihistamine and Decongestant. This medicine is available in form of tablets by brand name.

Before making any use of the medicine you should know full information about the medicine. You should avoid drinking alcoholic beverages if you are taking Drixoral Tablets. If you are taking sedatives or tranquilizers, do not take Drixoral without consulting your doctor. If you are making use of this medicine and your symptoms do not improve within 7 days you should immediately consult your doctor. Do not use Drixoral if you are suffering from breathing problem, heart disease, high blood pressure, thyroid disease, glaucoma and diabetes. Drixoral medicines should not use in children below 12 years of age, unless it is recommended by the doctor. Pregnant and breast feeding mother should not use Drixoral medicine as use of this medicine in pregnant and breast feeding mother may harm the health of unborn baby or nursed child.

Take Drixoral medicine with a full glass of water. Take this medicine as suggested by the doctor or health care professional. Do not increase the dose of the medicine. Recommended dosage for Drixoral medicine is two in a day. Store medicine at room temperature away from the light, heat and moisture. For best result take Drixoral medicine at the same time each day. Keep all medicines away from the reach of the children and pet.