Feline Asthma Investigation And Treatment

It is quite common for cats to present to veterinary clinics with a chronic cough or wheeze. The problem may be constant or just recur from time to time, and can range from mild to severe. Clinically the disease may resemble human asthma, but the term feline asthma can be misleading as there are a number of different possible causes. Here we look at what those underlying causes can be, and the different forms of treatment available to affected cats.

Cats usually present with one or all the following signs:

1.Coughing
2.Wheezing
3.Difficulty breathing

A minority of cases will have the classic human status asthmaticus, rapid onset breathing difficulty due to severe narrowing of the bronchi. Cats tend to be middle aged or older, and Siamese cats may be more prone than other breeds.

The Pathology

Little is known about the underlying causes or exacerbating factors in feline asthma. There may be an element of genetic predisposition. While chronic inhalation of airway irritants, such as smoking, has been shown to cause bronchitis in humans, this has not been studied in detail in cats. Likewise, allergens such as pollen, housedust mites, dander, fungal spores, dust and cat litter could all be implicated theoretically.

To return to the comparison with human asthma, when trying to understand the underlying causes it is important to differentiate between asthma (constriction of the bronchi), chronic bronchitis (oversecretion of mucus with a chronic cough) and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Asthma is reversible bronchial constriction caused by eosinophil cells, whereas COPD is irreversible bronchial constriction involving neutrophil cells.

The Differentials

There are a large number of possible diagnoses when a cat first presents with coughing or breathing difficulty. Here are some of the more important ones:

1. Pulmonary edema. Often due to severe heart disease.
2. Infectious bronchitis. This can be due to bacteria, viruses or parasites.
3. Pleural disease. Filling of the space between the lung and the chest wall with air or an effusion.
4. Cancer. This can be a primary lung tumor or metastatic spread.
5. Potassium bromide induced respiratory disease. A side effect from an anti-epileptic drug.
6. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Responds poorly to treatment.
7. Pulmonary thromboembolus. Lodging of a clot in a respiratory blood vessel causing sudden onset breathing difficulty.
8. Pulmonary hypertension. Usually secondary to other heart or respiratory disease.

Diagnosis

1. Clinical examination

The first step in the diagnostic protocol is a thorough clinical examination by a veterinarian. This should localize the origin of the disease to the upper airways, lower airways or pleural space. If the cat is found to have pleural disease, a needle may be inserted straight away to remove either air or a sample of the effusion for both diagnosis and short term treatment of the respiratory distress.

2. Radiography

The next test performed is usually thoracic radiography. This is best performed under general anesthetic so there is lee chance for motion blur, though in acute situations this is not possible. This is where the most meaningful information can be gained.

3. Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy allows visualization of the larger airways, and assessment for increased mucus and inflammation.

4. Tracheal wash

This involves injecting a small amount of saline into the trachea and immediately withdrawing it, and then examining the cells and debris harvested under a microscope.

5. Bronchoalveolar lavage

This is similar to the technique described above, but the catheter is inserted all the way into a lower airway before the saline is injected and withdrawn. This is therefore a good test for lower airway disease.

6. Lung biopsy

This is an invasive procedure that carries a significant risk to the patient. It is only indicated where diffuse cancer or extensive fibrosis is suspected, or in severe disease that responds poorly to treatment.

Treatment

The aims of treatment are as follows.

1. Eliminate any suspected infectious agents. This may be a sufficiently long course of antibiotics if bacterial infection is suspected, or a wormer such as fenbendazole if lungworm is suspected.

2. Remove or avoid airway irritants. The most obvious one is ensuring the cat has no contact with cigarette smoke, and purchasing dust free cat litter.

3. Removal or avoidance of potential allergens. House dust mite allergy must be excluded by spraying the house with an acaricidal product.

4. Chronic therapy for the underlying condition. For long term treatment of cats with feline asthma, a combination of steroids and bronchodilators are a popular choice. Steroids reduce the inflammation and lower mucus production, and can limit long term consequences such as fibrosis. Bronchodilators are most useful when there is airway spasm. Traditionally, medication has been given orally via tablets, but over the last few years, metered dose inhalers such as the ones used for human asthma have come on the market.

Aerosol therapy has the advantage that the maximum concentration of drug is delivered to the target site. This means that lower overall doses can be used, and the cat is less likely to suffer the negative side effects of steroids. Various inhalers can be used in both cats and dogs, but they tend to be designed for humans. As a result, higher doses are given compared with human medicine, as humans can be instructed to breathe deeply whereas cats will breathe normally at best.

Glucocorticoid drugs (steroids) used in inhalers include Beclometasone, Fluticasone and Budesonide. Beclometasone is cheap, but is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream when you want it to hang around in the area where it applied. Fluticasone is more expensive, but tends to stay where you want it to. Budesonide is relatively inexpensive and though it is easily absorbed into the bloodstream, it tends to be removed the first time it goes through the liver.

Bronchodilator drugs used in inhalers include Salbutamol and Salmeterol. Salbutamol is very fast acting and therefore useful in a crisis caused by spasm of the bronchi. However, it only lasts for about 30 minutes and is therefore unsuitable for chronic therapy as frequent dosing is required. Salmeterol on the other hand is longer acting, and lasts for about 12 hours so twice daily dosing is possible. Salmeterol is better for long term control of mild to moderate asthma while Salbutamol is better for relief of acute bronchospasm.

The Seretide Evohaler is useful for cats requiring both steroid and bronchodilator therapy. It contains salbutamol and fluticasone, a combination allowing minimal dosing frequency.

Spacer devices

A spacer device consists of a chamber into which the aerosol drug is released at one end, with a mask at the other end which fits snugly over the cats mouth and nose. Human baby spacer devices (e.g. Babyhaler) can be easily adapted for cats. Alternatively, veterinary spacers specifically designed for cats are now on the market (e.g. Aerokat). The spacer should be held over the cats nose and mouth for about 30 seconds to ensure complete delivery of the drugs. It should be remembered that aerosol steroid therapy can take up to 2 weeks to reach full effect, and if the cat has been on oral steroids previously, these should be phased out slowly during these initial 2 weeks.

Is treatment lifelong?

Generally yes. Doses can often be reduced gradually once clinical remission has been achieved. As with many chronic conditions, complete control might not always be possible and an acceptable quality of life is the main aim of the treatment.

Acupuncture Education Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide

Acupuncture originated in China and is a treatment that can be traced back thousands of years. The general theory of traditional acupuncture is based on patterns of energy flow through the body that are essential for health. This energy is referred to as Qi or Chi and sometimes Xue (blood). Disruptions of this flow are believed to be responsible for pain and disease. Acupuncture works to correct imbalances of flow, helping to restore health.

Acupuncture Education in Australia

There are various accredited courses in Australia in Traditional Chinese Medicine/Acupuncture. The below is a brief summary of some of the courses available in different states.

Acupuncture Sydney Training

In Sydney courses are offered by the University of Technology, Sydney, and the University of Western Sydney.

The University of Technology Sydney offers a Bachelor of Health Science in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The course aims to equip students for practice of acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine.

The University of Western Sydney offers a Bachelor of Health Science/Master of Traditional Chinese Medicine, a Master of Traditional Chinese Medicine and a Master of Acupuncture. The first three years of the program result in a Bachelor of Health Science (BHSc) qualification. Students study core common subjects with other BHSc students and allied health students. Traditional Chinese medicine units commence from the second semester of the first year. The Masters program focuses on clinical skills, practical experience and looks at particular areas such as skin disease, gynaecology and the musculoskeletal system.

Acupuncture Melbourne Training

In Melbourne, courses are offered by RMIT University, Endeavour College of Natural Health, Melbourne and Southern School of Natural Therapies.

RMIT University offers a Bachelor of Health Science (Acupuncture and Chinese Manual Therapy). This course offers theoretical studies and clinical training including a semester of advanced clinical training at the Teaching Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

Endeavour College of Natural Therapies offers a Bachelor of Health Science (Acupuncture). This is a four year course, full time and includes subjects in anatomy, biology, biochemistry and pharmacology. There is also a significant clinical component.

The Southern School of Natural Therapies offers a Bachelor of Health Science (Chinese Medicine). The course teaches relevant biological sciences, social sciences and includes research studies. The Chinese Medicine stream includes components of bilateral theory and therapeutics generic to all Chinese Medicine modalities. This is then complemented by streams of Acupuncture and Chinese Herbal Medicine.

Acupuncture Brisbane and Gold Coast Training, Acupuncture Perth and Acupuncture Adelaide Training

In Brisbane, Gold Coast, Perth and Adelaide courses are offered by the Endeavour College of Natural Health.

Cost Effective Medicine Formulations To Cure Infectious Diseases

Malaria is a serious disease that’s caused by a parasite known as Plasmodium and it spread through the bite of an infected female mosquito. The parasite travels to the liver via the blood and then out into the bloodstream again, where it invades the red blood cells. There are four different types of malaria parasite: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malaria. The classical Malaria symptoms are fever and shivering. Malaria attack starts with fever, and temperature rising as high as 40C and falling again over a period of several hours.

Other Malaria Symptoms may include fatigue, nausea, severe headache, and vomiting. Malaria symptoms usually appear between 10 and 15 days after the mosquito bite. The malaria treatment is very complicated because different types of malaria require different types of drugs. Malaria treatment comes in the form of antimalarial drugs and depends upon the sternness of disease. Alaxin plus Tablets, Lonart Suppository and P-Alaxin Tablets are some medicines for malaria. Symptoms of malaria are fast controlled by Dihydroartemisinin, which is powerful plasmodicide of malaria parasite agamete.

There is no any mutuation effects experienced of it. It is widely distributed in the liver, kidneys and bile. For inhibit the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, Pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine take steps in sequence in the bacterial path way of folic acid synthesis. That converts dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate. Alaxin Plus Tablets contains Sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine which do not affect mammalian cells while these mammalian cells are unable to synthesize folic acid themselves and require intact folic acid. Each Lonart Suppository contains Artemether 20 mg and Lumefantrine 120 mg. Excipients q.s. Artemether is the most active derivate of the Artemisinines, a new class of antimalarial drugs derived from Artemisinin. The latter compound is extracted from the plant Artemisia Annua and Artemether is prepared semi-synthetically. Lumefantrine is a synthetic aryl amino alcohol similar to mefloquine and halo-fantrine.

Lonart Suppository is used to treatment of malaria, which is caused by all forms of Plasmodium including severe malaria caused by multiple drug resistant strains of P. Falciparum. Each coated tablet of P-Alaxin Tablets contains Dihydroartemisinin 40 mg, Piperaquine Phosphate 320 mg, Excipients: q.s. It is used when P. falciparum, P, Vivax and P. malariae attack. This medicine is not suggested for use in women during the first 3 months of pregnancy. These tablets should keep in dry and cold places.

Dental Issues Get Your Smiles Back Using Cosmetic Dentistry At Gaithersburg, Md

Cosmetic dentistry at Gaithersburg, MD specializes in beautifying smiles, maintaining your dental health and helping you improve your appearance.

Sometimes people might meet with an accident, chip their tooth, face yellowing teeth, gum ache and many other similar problems which might hamper their real beautiful smile from flashing. As a remedy to that, you need experienced and friendly dental staff which will help you get your beautiful smile back. With the help of modern science, there are a lot of procedures like veneers, fillings, crowns, and bridges that can be created to look as good as or even better than the teeth nature gave you. And to ensure that, you need a trusted dentist who uses the products of the highest quality and durability. No matter what has happened to you, science will help you get your smile back.Cosmetic Dentistry in Gaitherburg, MD can give you a smile youre happy to show off. Modern cosmetic dentistry techniques make it easier than ever for you to have a bright, even smile.

Dental implants are designed to provide a foundation for replacement teeth that look, feel and function like natural teeth. The person who has lost teeth regains the ability to eat virtually anything and can smile with confidence, knowing that their teeth appear natural and that facial contours will be preserved.

For most patients, the placement of dental implants involves two surgical procedures. First, implants are placed within your jawbone. For the three to six months following surgery, the implants are beneath the surface of the gums, gradually bonding with the jawbone. You should be able to wear temporary dentures and eat a soft diet during this time. At the same time, your restorative dentist designs the final bridgework or dentures, which will ultimately improve both function and aesthetics.

After the implant has bonded to the jawbone, the second phase begins. The surgeon will uncover the implants and attach a small healing collar. Dr. Ahmad, Dr. Amigo and Dr. Ryan can then start making your new teeth. An impression must be taken. Then posts or attachments can be connected to the implants. The replacement teeth are then made over the posts or attachments. The entire procedure usually takes six to eight months. Most patients do not experience any disruption in their daily lives.

Everyone should be able to smile with confidence. Now, thanks to advancements in modern cosmetic dental care, you can have a beautiful smile easier than ever before.

Immunotherapy Kill Breast Cancer Cells By Using Dc-cik Cells

Breast cancer deaths have increased by 38.91 percent. 84 percent of breast cancer patients do not attach importance to self-examination and treatment. Statistics show that breast cancer is the first female cancer. The diseases usually can despoil of young. Every one suffers various pressures from the society of increasingly severe competition. stress can actually depress the immune system and also cause an agitating mood, the endocrine disorder, which makes human body system out of balance. Many young women appear such symptoms of breast pain, breast color change, These are the performance of sub-health. Conclusion Immunologic function of early breast cancer patients does not decrease significantly, and cancer does not suppress organism immunologic function obviously. These early symptoms are often ignored, it is always early signs of breast cancer. Immune system is taken seriously more and more in the body against tumors. Immunotherapy is called the fourth cancer treatment modality for this.

Current biological therapies have demonstrated excellent efficacy in PsA and have been shown to be safe agents. Immuno biological therapy to kill residual cancer cells by using DC-CIK cells. It can improve patient survival and quality of life. If breast cancer patients get the Immuno biological therapy in time, canimprove the immune system of patients effectively, Improve patient diet and sleep and enhance the patient’s physical. It is very important to prevent recurrence and metastasis of breast cancer. Immuno biological therapy is another means to treat cancer after surgical treatment, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It can better alleviate the side effects of chemotherapy. It can better alleviate the side effects of chemotherapy to ensure the smooth progress of chemotherapy, and makes white blood cell’s quantity to increase, and energy The enhancement white blood cell bites the fungus ability. DC and CIK are two important parts of breast cancer immune therapy. DC can identify the antigen, activate acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. CIK secrete Cytokines and to kill tumor cells in breast cancer. The therapy can significantly inhibit the growth of breast tumor cell, and help the body to restore immune system.

TCM is well recognized for its remarkable effectiveness in offsetting the side effect caused by the toxic and chemical treatment of cancer cases in the western medical system. The adjuvant treatment of patients with primary invasive breast cancer is beneficial. If the cancer patient get the chinese medicine for adjuvant treatment in time while doing the immuno biological therapy, significantly reduce the side effects of chemotherapy after surgery.