Information Of Causes Of Heart Disease

Within the last 100 years, Heart Disease has been recorded as the leading cause of death in the United States, England, Wales and Canada. In America heart diseases are responsible for one person every 34 seconds and more than 60 million Americans have some type of cardiovascular disfunction. There are many individuals who are uninformed about its causes, symptoms and ways of preventing it the risk of it affecting you and your family. Heart disease is not a single disease but rather a group of diseases of that spurs from different causes. These diseases cause damage to the heart and impacts the way in which it functions.
There are many different causes for developing heart disease, one such cause is smoking. Cigarettes and tobacco contain hazardous substances which include, nicotine and include carbon monoxide. These chemicals travel to the lungs and build up fatty plaque in the arteries and cause damage to the artery vessel walls. Smoking also increase the heart rate and tighten the major arteries and causes the heart rate to become abnormal all these factors cause the heart to pump more blood. When the heart becomes overworked this puts massive strain on the heart and lead to various complications.
Persons who do no physical activites also increase their risk of getting a heart attack when compared to a person who practices to exercise on a regular basis. Exercise helps to control the bodys cholesterol level by burning calories and through regular exercise, the muscles of the heart are made stronger and the arteries become even more flexible. Burning 500 3500 calories during the week can increase your mortality rate by far versus someone who does not. Exercise also helps to eliminate stress in the body. Major stress can cause your heart to work harder than usual. When you increase your hearts need for oxygen, this can bring on chest pain in person who already have a heart disease.

Persons who have a family history of being diagnosed with heart disease are more prone to become infected with it. If your parents or siblings have suffered from a heart problems before age 55, then it automatically heightens the possibility of infection over someone who does not have a family record of heart disease.
There is also information to identify that certain heart disease can be connected to certain racial and ethnic groups. For example high blood pressure is more commonly diagnosed in African American men versus their white man counterparts. The male gender also suffer a higher risk of heart attack over women until the age of 65 where the risk is equaled. Heart diseases are also connected to high cholesterol levels. Cholesterol is a fat like substance which is produced from the food we consume and is transported within the body via the blood. Products that are produced from animals like meat, dairy products and egg are high in cholesterol, and if consumed excessively it can lead to high cholesterol levels. Other causes of heart disease include being overweight and high blood pressure. Person who suffer from obesity are more likely to experience high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. High blood pressure increases the risk of heart disease, heart attacks and the possibility of a stroke occurring.

Early Cancer Detection Through Handwriting Analysis

Handwriting is brain-writing.” Graphologists explain that the brain is the director of our physical as well as our mental activity. Just as our writing reflects our personality, so does it reflect certain aberrations in our physiology.

Alfred Kanfer, born in Austria and later imprisoned in Dachau concentration camp along with his wife, is considered the pioneer of the graphological neuromuscular test for determination of groups at high risk for cancer. He had an impressive 84-percent accuracy rate in detecting the disease through handwriting.

What the Kanfer test does is to apply a neuromuscular tool to determine the presence or absence of such characteristic neuromuscular disorders. The Kanfer test alone does not determine the presence or absence of cancer; it determines a factor associated with cancer.

Alfred Kanfer was released from Dachau; he emigrated to the United States. He was an outsider in the field of medicine-with a method for identifying cancer-prone individuals that was so highly unorthodox, that he had a stiff uphill battle to prove his method and find acceptance for it.

What is surprising is the cooperation he received, throughout his more then thirty-five years of work, from many prominent doctors and hospitals.

The Hospital for Joint Diseases in New York, the Preventive Medicine Institute-Strang Clinic in New York, the Equitable Life Assurance Society, the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company and the American Cancer Society provided financial and material support for Kanfer’s work. Their patients’ handwritings were submitted to him for analysis.

The “Heart Tick”

Graphologists have determined that certain breaks in writing, slight interruptions in the upstroke and in the downstroke, especially in letters with loops, can point to heart disease. They call this break a “heart tick” and find it particularly in the lower-case h

(see arrow, Figure 1).

Another sign is abnormal dotting in the course of the writing “trail” (see Figure 2).

In the act of writing, a person with heart trouble-which is often accompanied by shortness of breath-instinctively rests the pen on the paper, as one would do with a stick when walking.

Dr. Ulrich Sonnemann, a major contributor to the early development of professional graphology in the U.S. whose book Handwriting Analysis as a Psychodiagnostic Tool (Grune & Stratton, 1950) is highly respected in the field, confirms that a disrupted pattern of strokes can be indicative of cardiac disease. Sonnemann adds that the specific frailties and incomplete ataxias (the inability to coordinate voluntary muscular movements), which are marked by partial dotting of the course of strokes, have been discovered at very early and clinically undetected stages.

Variations of Normal Handwriting

The foremost tenet in graphology is analyzing the difference between a person’s handwriting and how he was taught to write. There are many shades of instructional technique in script, all of which would be classified under “variations of normal handwriting.” When the writing differs to the extent that it certainly was not taught to the writer this way, that difference is analyzed. The “normal” writing sample is provided as a basis for comparison.

1. Marked difference between downstroke and upstroke pressure in regular sequence throughout a given writing sample.

Characteristics: Downsrokes are broader and show greater ink density than upstrokes.
(1 and 2 in Figure 3).

All downstrokes in a given writing have about the same width, and so do all upstrokes.

2. Elasticity of strokes.

The width of downstrokes gradually increases toward the baseline, where they connect with the upstrokes, and at the same time the upstrokes thin out slightly along their course.

3. Uninterrupted flow of movement through downstrokes and upstrokes.

Characteristics: Uniform, even density of ink throughout the length of downstrokes and upstrokes (1 and 2). Continuous, uninterrupted and unwavering delineations of downstrokes and upstrokes (1 and 2).

4. Uninterrupted flow of movement through area of transition (3 in Figure 3).
Characteristics are as above.

Of specific importance is the uninterrupted joining of downstrokes and upstrokes, which requires a maximum degree of neuromuscular coordination and is therefore of the highest significance.

Finding Cancer in Its Early Stages

A startling example of the accuracy of the diagnosis of cancer through handwriting analysis is the case of Mrs. B. By medical standards, Mrs. B. was found to be healthy from the date of her first handwriting sample to the date of the third. One year after the date of her third sample, at the age of 41, an advanced cancer was found, and she died at 42.

The following samples are microphotographs of Mrs. B’s handwriting.

The first one (Figure 5) was written at age twenty-eight, the second (Figure 6) at age thirty-three, and the third (Figure 7) at age forty.

The first sample, Figure 5, shows the typical criteria of normality-that is, a mature neuromuscular condition with a normal range of coordination. Normality is manifested in the smooth, continuous flow of movement, both in the descending and ascending strokes (uniform flow of ink throughout the strokes and sharp, continuous delineations to both sides of each stroke). The strokes have an oval shape; the turns from descending to ascending strokes are narrow, curved, and show continuity of movement throughout.
A regular pattern of heavier (wider and darker) descending strokes and lighter ascending strokes prevails throughout the sample.

The second sample, Figure 6, shows a marked change. Although the overall pattern of heavier descending strokes and lighter ascending strokes is still preserved, the narrow turns have disappeared, the writing spreads out widely, the strokes are much weaker and highly unstable, and in most of the ascending strokes, clear segmentations can be seen.
(Segmentation means that continuity of movement is interrupted, and the direction of the stroke is seen on microscopic examination to be wavering.) Clear interruptions between descending and ascending strokes are also visible.

The third sample, Figure 7, shows a breakdown of every phase of the writing process.

The strokes are stiff or formless. The pressure is uneven, sometimes too heavy, and in other strokes too light. There are clear interruptions between descending and ascending strokes, and both types of strokes show marked, low-amplitude, high-frequency segmentations.

“With these (and many such) findings it was for the first time shown with statistical significance that the manifestations of cancer in handwriting precede the manifestations of cancer by clinical signs.” (Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases, April 1, 1958)


Although Kanfer’s handwriting test was remarkable, he did make some blunders along the way, which had to be corrected. While he was able to clearly separate the healthy handwritings from the ones indicating cancer or heart disease, he erred by diagnosing a considerable number of the heart cases as positive for cancer. In later studies, with sharpening of the cancer criteria, this cause of error was practically eliminated.

A second error involved inappropriate use of materials and turned up when three tests were conducted under the auspices of the American Cancer Society. The first and third test ranged between 84 and 98.4 percent in the accuracy of detection of cancer.

The second study was the only one that failed. It was carried out on samples gathered at a Detroit cancer detection center. The reason for this failure, as later established, was faulty technical arrangements. The patients were made to write with a hard glass plate as a writing support and had to use a rigid, fine-point pen, a combination that made the finer segmentations in the stroke practically invisible, even to the microscopic equipment then available.

When this error was recognized, some changes were made in the microscopic technique and some of the samples were re-examined. Kanfer’s results were then considered “very good” by the Cancer Society. Nevertheless, this failure set his work back many years and demonstrated the importance of technical considerations in research.

Unresolved Questions

Many questions remain unresolved. What about the problem of a handwriting that “tests positive” when there is no medical diagnosis? What effects does that information have? What psychological harm can it do when there is no detectable cancer to treat?

This problem affected Kanfer himself. He went to the Strang Clinic doctors to tell them that he saw positive indicators of cancer in his own handwriting. They couldn’t find the cancer until three weeks before he died.

Although graphology’s strength lies primarily in personality evaluation, in which it achieves up to 98 percent accuracy, the statistical significance attributed to the Kanfer test remains great. The need for more research is vital.

Author’s note: Please do not try to diagnose yourself or others using this technique. It takes a professional to recognize the nuances of change in a handwriting sample.

Feline Asthma Investigation And Treatment

It is quite common for cats to present to veterinary clinics with a chronic cough or wheeze. The problem may be constant or just recur from time to time, and can range from mild to severe. Clinically the disease may resemble human asthma, but the term feline asthma can be misleading as there are a number of different possible causes. Here we look at what those underlying causes can be, and the different forms of treatment available to affected cats.

Cats usually present with one or all the following signs:

3.Difficulty breathing

A minority of cases will have the classic human status asthmaticus, rapid onset breathing difficulty due to severe narrowing of the bronchi. Cats tend to be middle aged or older, and Siamese cats may be more prone than other breeds.

The Pathology

Little is known about the underlying causes or exacerbating factors in feline asthma. There may be an element of genetic predisposition. While chronic inhalation of airway irritants, such as smoking, has been shown to cause bronchitis in humans, this has not been studied in detail in cats. Likewise, allergens such as pollen, housedust mites, dander, fungal spores, dust and cat litter could all be implicated theoretically.

To return to the comparison with human asthma, when trying to understand the underlying causes it is important to differentiate between asthma (constriction of the bronchi), chronic bronchitis (oversecretion of mucus with a chronic cough) and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Asthma is reversible bronchial constriction caused by eosinophil cells, whereas COPD is irreversible bronchial constriction involving neutrophil cells.

The Differentials

There are a large number of possible diagnoses when a cat first presents with coughing or breathing difficulty. Here are some of the more important ones:

1. Pulmonary edema. Often due to severe heart disease.
2. Infectious bronchitis. This can be due to bacteria, viruses or parasites.
3. Pleural disease. Filling of the space between the lung and the chest wall with air or an effusion.
4. Cancer. This can be a primary lung tumor or metastatic spread.
5. Potassium bromide induced respiratory disease. A side effect from an anti-epileptic drug.
6. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Responds poorly to treatment.
7. Pulmonary thromboembolus. Lodging of a clot in a respiratory blood vessel causing sudden onset breathing difficulty.
8. Pulmonary hypertension. Usually secondary to other heart or respiratory disease.


1. Clinical examination

The first step in the diagnostic protocol is a thorough clinical examination by a veterinarian. This should localize the origin of the disease to the upper airways, lower airways or pleural space. If the cat is found to have pleural disease, a needle may be inserted straight away to remove either air or a sample of the effusion for both diagnosis and short term treatment of the respiratory distress.

2. Radiography

The next test performed is usually thoracic radiography. This is best performed under general anesthetic so there is lee chance for motion blur, though in acute situations this is not possible. This is where the most meaningful information can be gained.

3. Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy allows visualization of the larger airways, and assessment for increased mucus and inflammation.

4. Tracheal wash

This involves injecting a small amount of saline into the trachea and immediately withdrawing it, and then examining the cells and debris harvested under a microscope.

5. Bronchoalveolar lavage

This is similar to the technique described above, but the catheter is inserted all the way into a lower airway before the saline is injected and withdrawn. This is therefore a good test for lower airway disease.

6. Lung biopsy

This is an invasive procedure that carries a significant risk to the patient. It is only indicated where diffuse cancer or extensive fibrosis is suspected, or in severe disease that responds poorly to treatment.


The aims of treatment are as follows.

1. Eliminate any suspected infectious agents. This may be a sufficiently long course of antibiotics if bacterial infection is suspected, or a wormer such as fenbendazole if lungworm is suspected.

2. Remove or avoid airway irritants. The most obvious one is ensuring the cat has no contact with cigarette smoke, and purchasing dust free cat litter.

3. Removal or avoidance of potential allergens. House dust mite allergy must be excluded by spraying the house with an acaricidal product.

4. Chronic therapy for the underlying condition. For long term treatment of cats with feline asthma, a combination of steroids and bronchodilators are a popular choice. Steroids reduce the inflammation and lower mucus production, and can limit long term consequences such as fibrosis. Bronchodilators are most useful when there is airway spasm. Traditionally, medication has been given orally via tablets, but over the last few years, metered dose inhalers such as the ones used for human asthma have come on the market.

Aerosol therapy has the advantage that the maximum concentration of drug is delivered to the target site. This means that lower overall doses can be used, and the cat is less likely to suffer the negative side effects of steroids. Various inhalers can be used in both cats and dogs, but they tend to be designed for humans. As a result, higher doses are given compared with human medicine, as humans can be instructed to breathe deeply whereas cats will breathe normally at best.

Glucocorticoid drugs (steroids) used in inhalers include Beclometasone, Fluticasone and Budesonide. Beclometasone is cheap, but is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream when you want it to hang around in the area where it applied. Fluticasone is more expensive, but tends to stay where you want it to. Budesonide is relatively inexpensive and though it is easily absorbed into the bloodstream, it tends to be removed the first time it goes through the liver.

Bronchodilator drugs used in inhalers include Salbutamol and Salmeterol. Salbutamol is very fast acting and therefore useful in a crisis caused by spasm of the bronchi. However, it only lasts for about 30 minutes and is therefore unsuitable for chronic therapy as frequent dosing is required. Salmeterol on the other hand is longer acting, and lasts for about 12 hours so twice daily dosing is possible. Salmeterol is better for long term control of mild to moderate asthma while Salbutamol is better for relief of acute bronchospasm.

The Seretide Evohaler is useful for cats requiring both steroid and bronchodilator therapy. It contains salbutamol and fluticasone, a combination allowing minimal dosing frequency.

Spacer devices

A spacer device consists of a chamber into which the aerosol drug is released at one end, with a mask at the other end which fits snugly over the cats mouth and nose. Human baby spacer devices (e.g. Babyhaler) can be easily adapted for cats. Alternatively, veterinary spacers specifically designed for cats are now on the market (e.g. Aerokat). The spacer should be held over the cats nose and mouth for about 30 seconds to ensure complete delivery of the drugs. It should be remembered that aerosol steroid therapy can take up to 2 weeks to reach full effect, and if the cat has been on oral steroids previously, these should be phased out slowly during these initial 2 weeks.

Is treatment lifelong?

Generally yes. Doses can often be reduced gradually once clinical remission has been achieved. As with many chronic conditions, complete control might not always be possible and an acceptable quality of life is the main aim of the treatment.

Acupuncture Education Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide

Acupuncture originated in China and is a treatment that can be traced back thousands of years. The general theory of traditional acupuncture is based on patterns of energy flow through the body that are essential for health. This energy is referred to as Qi or Chi and sometimes Xue (blood). Disruptions of this flow are believed to be responsible for pain and disease. Acupuncture works to correct imbalances of flow, helping to restore health.

Acupuncture Education in Australia

There are various accredited courses in Australia in Traditional Chinese Medicine/Acupuncture. The below is a brief summary of some of the courses available in different states.

Acupuncture Sydney Training

In Sydney courses are offered by the University of Technology, Sydney, and the University of Western Sydney.

The University of Technology Sydney offers a Bachelor of Health Science in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The course aims to equip students for practice of acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine.

The University of Western Sydney offers a Bachelor of Health Science/Master of Traditional Chinese Medicine, a Master of Traditional Chinese Medicine and a Master of Acupuncture. The first three years of the program result in a Bachelor of Health Science (BHSc) qualification. Students study core common subjects with other BHSc students and allied health students. Traditional Chinese medicine units commence from the second semester of the first year. The Masters program focuses on clinical skills, practical experience and looks at particular areas such as skin disease, gynaecology and the musculoskeletal system.

Acupuncture Melbourne Training

In Melbourne, courses are offered by RMIT University, Endeavour College of Natural Health, Melbourne and Southern School of Natural Therapies.

RMIT University offers a Bachelor of Health Science (Acupuncture and Chinese Manual Therapy). This course offers theoretical studies and clinical training including a semester of advanced clinical training at the Teaching Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

Endeavour College of Natural Therapies offers a Bachelor of Health Science (Acupuncture). This is a four year course, full time and includes subjects in anatomy, biology, biochemistry and pharmacology. There is also a significant clinical component.

The Southern School of Natural Therapies offers a Bachelor of Health Science (Chinese Medicine). The course teaches relevant biological sciences, social sciences and includes research studies. The Chinese Medicine stream includes components of bilateral theory and therapeutics generic to all Chinese Medicine modalities. This is then complemented by streams of Acupuncture and Chinese Herbal Medicine.

Acupuncture Brisbane and Gold Coast Training, Acupuncture Perth and Acupuncture Adelaide Training

In Brisbane, Gold Coast, Perth and Adelaide courses are offered by the Endeavour College of Natural Health.

Cost Effective Medicine Formulations To Cure Infectious Diseases

Malaria is a serious disease that’s caused by a parasite known as Plasmodium and it spread through the bite of an infected female mosquito. The parasite travels to the liver via the blood and then out into the bloodstream again, where it invades the red blood cells. There are four different types of malaria parasite: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malaria. The classical Malaria symptoms are fever and shivering. Malaria attack starts with fever, and temperature rising as high as 40C and falling again over a period of several hours.

Other Malaria Symptoms may include fatigue, nausea, severe headache, and vomiting. Malaria symptoms usually appear between 10 and 15 days after the mosquito bite. The malaria treatment is very complicated because different types of malaria require different types of drugs. Malaria treatment comes in the form of antimalarial drugs and depends upon the sternness of disease. Alaxin plus Tablets, Lonart Suppository and P-Alaxin Tablets are some medicines for malaria. Symptoms of malaria are fast controlled by Dihydroartemisinin, which is powerful plasmodicide of malaria parasite agamete.

There is no any mutuation effects experienced of it. It is widely distributed in the liver, kidneys and bile. For inhibit the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, Pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine take steps in sequence in the bacterial path way of folic acid synthesis. That converts dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate. Alaxin Plus Tablets contains Sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine which do not affect mammalian cells while these mammalian cells are unable to synthesize folic acid themselves and require intact folic acid. Each Lonart Suppository contains Artemether 20 mg and Lumefantrine 120 mg. Excipients q.s. Artemether is the most active derivate of the Artemisinines, a new class of antimalarial drugs derived from Artemisinin. The latter compound is extracted from the plant Artemisia Annua and Artemether is prepared semi-synthetically. Lumefantrine is a synthetic aryl amino alcohol similar to mefloquine and halo-fantrine.

Lonart Suppository is used to treatment of malaria, which is caused by all forms of Plasmodium including severe malaria caused by multiple drug resistant strains of P. Falciparum. Each coated tablet of P-Alaxin Tablets contains Dihydroartemisinin 40 mg, Piperaquine Phosphate 320 mg, Excipients: q.s. It is used when P. falciparum, P, Vivax and P. malariae attack. This medicine is not suggested for use in women during the first 3 months of pregnancy. These tablets should keep in dry and cold places.